Current Projects


Offering a gentle, comfortable, and life-changing travel experience to the edge of space for private citizens; and affordable access to a range of near-space commercialization opportunities for researchers, private companies and government agencies, World View is pioneering a new era of discovery at the edge of space. Available today for unmanned commercial opportunities with an altitude threshold of 130,000 feet, and currently taking reservations for manned flights and private tours, World View is creating unprecedented access to the near-space environment. Paragon is contracted to be the life support system and vehicle developer.


The CST-100 (Crew Space Transportation) crew capsule is a spacecraft being designed by Boeing in collaboration with Bigelow Aerospace. It was initially funded via NASAís Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program. Its primary mission is to transport crew to the International Space Station and to private space stations such as the proposed Bigelow Aerospace Commercial Space Station. The CST-100 will be able to support crews of up to 7 and is designed to be able to remain on-orbit for up to seven months and fly up to ten missions. In August of 2012 Boeing received $460M under NASAís Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCAP) Program to continue work on the spacecraft. Paragon is contracted to supply the Humidity Control Subassembly (HCS) for CST-100.

Inspiration Mars

The discovery of a trajectory allowing for an opportunity to send a space vehicle from Earth, have it fly around Mars, and return to Earth in a relatively short time period, on the order of 500 days (Earth-Mars free-return mission) enables a unique opportunity for mankind. Preliminary analyses have shown that the required technology to facilitate such a manned voyage is, or will be in place in time for the next launch opportunity in January of 2018. Paragon is supporting the Inspiration Mars Foundation and Project by performing all required analyses, generation of data products, and design of an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and ECLSS Technology Development Unit (ETDU) that will sufficiently demonstrate the required technologies to be applied to a 500‐day manned mission to fly around Mars and back.

Mars One

Paragon was contracted by Mars One to perform an initial conceptual design of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Mars Surface Exploration Spacesuit System. During this study, Paragon will identify major suppliers, concepts, and technologies that exist today and can be used as the baseline architecture for further development. The ECLSS will provide and maintain a safe, reliable environment for the inhabitants, providing them with clean air and water. The surface suits will enable the settlers to work outside of the habitat and explore the surface of Mars.

Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFBX)

Innovative Space Propulsion Systems (ISPS) is a partnership between Odyssey Space Research and Firestar Technologies. They are developing a propulsion experiment using Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFBX) to be operated while attached externally to the International Space Station (ISS). NOFBX is a proprietary, non-toxic monopropellant being developed by Firestar for spaceflight. The integrated NOFBX assembly will be flown on a Space X launch vehicle for delivery to the ESA Columbus External Payload Facility (EPF) where it will remain for up to one (1) year. After expenditure of the propellant, the NOFBX will be disposed of on-orbit at the discretion of ISS. Paragon has been working with Odyssey to provide thermal analysis, manufacturing of the required tubing, clean room assembly, and system integration.

Modular Air Revitalization System (MARS)

Paragon is currently working to adapt its previously developed Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System (CCT-ARS) to the life support needs for mine refuge alternatives (RAs) that are utilized in coal mining emergencies. Paragon is working with the company, MineShield, to tailor the system to their RAs, and to help retrofit existing RAs for the upcoming new certification standards that will be imposed by December 2013.

The three stages pictured above, from left to right, are the untreated urine, the pretreated augmented urine, and the condensed permeated water (product water). The only stage that is not shown is the concentrated brine which can be seen below.

Ionomer-Membrane Water Processor (IWP) Development Program

Paragon is developing the use of ionomer-microporous membrane technology to improve the robustness and effectiveness of and to simplify water recovery processes for space applications. Improved robustness and effectiveness will be evident through reduced loading on the downstream post-processor due to the ionomerís unique property of selective permeability, near complete removal of water from wastewater, and inclusion of a backup barrier between the retentate and permeate. The technology offers simplification over existing technology through a lower dependency on moving parts, and integrated capture of wastewater solutes for disposal.

Phase 2 testing has shown that 98%-99% of the contaminants in pretreated human urine were removed and 98% water recovery from the urine brine was achieved in a configuration that appears to be insensitive to gravity and orientation. The IWP system is being conceived to remove nearly all of the solids from a wastewater stream with minimal heating at low temperatures, while allowing only minor contamination cross-over. As the technology is fully developed, it can be inserted into existing and/or developing water recovery system architectures to increase water recovery rates beyond those available to date.

Commercial Crew Development Program

Paragon developed Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System (CCT-ARS) under NASAís Commercial Crew Development Program, phase 1. This modular life support system removes CO2, humidity and trace contaminants from cabin air, and provides air circulation and cooling.

ORION, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)

Paragonís primary scope is to design, analyze, and manufacture the tubing for the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) on the Orion MPCV. We are also supporting the overall Orion vehicle-level schematic, thermal analyses, flight radiator design, and cabin computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/ventilation. Orion-2, the first crewed vehicle, is scheduled to launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in the late 2015 timeframe.

NASA Constellation Space Suit

Paragon is partnered with Oceaneering Space Systems to build an exploration EVA space suit which will be demonstrated at ISS and will enable NASAís future exploration missions. Paragon is leading the thermal design and analysis effort, and is providing key components for the portable life support system.

View the archive of earlier Paragon projects →